Structure/Architecture of Linux | Learn Linux from Basics

Hey guys! As Promised, Learn Hacking is back with something new as usual. This time we are going to discuss about linux tutorials from beginning. I would be covering these tutorial really fast as I have some very busy days coming ahead. I would be writing these linux tutorials on a very fast frequency I guess , maybe daily.

So enough of intro, lets get back to Linux tutorials.
In the upcoming posts we would be covering Linux from basics. I am writing all the tutorials keeping the beginners in mind. So if you want to Learn Linux from basics, just keep following the upcoming posts and you will learn almost everything about linux.

But make sure you practice whatever you read here else everything is in vain. I am assuming that you have installed fedora or Ubuntu or any other version of linux.

We will mainly be covering shell in details as the linux terminal is its backbone. Its so much flexible and easy to use that once you are habitual of using linux, trust me you will never look back to windows.

So stay regular and make the most of this series. Not everyday do we start such series.

So in this post we are going to study about the architecture of linux.

1) Goto computer (on the homescreen) or

1) Goto Places  -> computer  -> File System

The images below will give you a clear picture of the topic:-

Linux tutorials for beginners | Learn linux from beginning | Learn Linux Hacking

Linux tutorials for beginners | Learn linux from beginning | Learn Linux Hacking


When you open the File System, you will see a lot of folders as shown int he image below:-

Linux tutorials for beginners | Learn linux from beginning | Learn Linux Hacking

Linux tutorials for beginners | Learn linux from beginning | Learn Linux Hacking


Now this is the main architecture of linux.
It is very important to understand that linux is a very different OS than windows. The way files are managed in Linux are also very different from windows and you are about to know how.

 In Linux, every directory in the File system has a specific task. Below I am going to explain the use of the most important directories and their task.

1) Boot :- This directory contains all the boot related files. This means, whenever you start your machine , files from this folder are the first one to be executed. Don’t make any change in any file of this directory unless you are very sure of what are you doing , else it can result in leaving your system unstable , or in worst cases , it won’t even boot.

2) Bin:- This directory contains all the binary related files, hence the name bin. This is the directory where all the system commands are found.

3) Etc :- This directory contains the configuration files of the system. We can change very important aspects of system functioning by editing any file in this directory.

Note:- Every computer / cyber security expert and Ethical Hacker should know that – All the login details ie.. the login username and login passwords are stored under – /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow/ 

4) Dev :- This directory contains the list of all device files thats why the name dev. These files don’t occupy space on disk. There could be m0ore subdirectories like pts , dsk etc in this dorectory

5) Home :- This is where current users files are saved

6) Lib :- This directory contains all the library files in binary format.

7) Tmp :- The directories where users are allowed to create temporary files. These files are wiped out on regular basis by the system.

8) Var:- This is the variable part of the file system. Contains all the print jobs and the outgoing and incoming mail.

Well there are some other directories as well, but these are the prime ones. They are present in almost every version of linux and thus are of great importance.

Explore them properly. Open each directory and have a look at the sub-directories and explore the files in them

Note:- Don’t edit any file unless you are not sure of what are you doing.

This was just the basic intro part.
In the next tutorial I would be starting with the terminal and the shell commands.

And do leave your comments and share this post, it gives motivation to write more.:)


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6 Responses to “Structure/Architecture of Linux | Learn Linux from Basics”

  1. Shimul Mahmud

    Sep 11. 2011

    Very nice post carry on

    Reply to this comment
  2. shailesh

    Sep 17. 2011

    gud one

    Reply to this comment
  3. suraj

    Sep 29. 2011

    Thnx sir,

    Reply to this comment
  4. Ganesh

    Mar 12. 2012

    I’m a bit late….but I think this site is amazing! Thanks for writing this article and please continue to write more. I find them very helpful! 🙂

    Reply to this comment
  5. Yasar

    May 09. 2012

    Nice.. But if you could provide a pdf file so that we can learn it offline as well.

    Reply to this comment
  6. roshan

    Jul 13. 2012

    nic introdctn

    Reply to this comment

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